New and updated figures February 2014
The run costs of an MBE system need not be astronomical, however like any system time and effort must be spent tuning it to efficient, economical operation. The MBE system costs can be separated into set up costs (see Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Initial Outlay) and the run costs discussed here. I will discuss the prices in GBP (£) since my current system is based in the UK. The day-by-day, year-by-year operation requires a number of consumables:
- LN2 (or alternative cooling)
- Compressed N2 or air
- Cell materials
- Cell crucibles
- Copper gaskets
- Miscellaneous maintenance items
Liquid nitrogen cooling cost: £12.4k per annum
Some form of cryogenic cooling is essential to MBE, though it need not be LN2 specifically. The alternatives are discussed in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Initial Outlay. Assuming you decided to follow the “spend more now, save more later” philosophy in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: LN2 system and bought an efficient LN2 system from VBS, decoupled your liquid and gas generation sub-systems and that your system is 2” capable MBE system with suitable heat shielding you will have a MBE system LN2 requirement of 200 L/day with an associated “heat loss” of 10%. At £0.11 per litre, LN2 is pretty cheap. Based on this you will use ~£24 a day or £8.8k per annum. However to obtain this low LN2 usage level you need to have a fully vacuum insulated line from the tank to the phase separator and from the phase separator to and from the MBE system. High integrity vacuum insulation requires constant regeneration, so you will need to run a dedicated pump all day every day, which will cost you an extra £1.6k per annum (pumping cost courtesy of Bart Limpens, VBS) . You will also probably be renting your main LN2 tank, so you need to add another £2k per annum. Note a poorly designed LN2 system can cost more than twice as much!
Gas system: £1.4k per annum
Pressurised gas is necessary in two forms: a 5 bar pneumatic line and a 1.5 bar venting line. Again in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Initial Outlay the pressurised gas choices were discussed. Assuming you decided to follow the example in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: N2/Gas system and divide your demand into 5 bar and 1.5 bar compressed air (from a compressor) and 1.5 bar N2 (from a convenient and efficient boil off system using a dedicated tank), you will have an electrical run cost of £1k per annum to run the compressor and 10L (£400) of LN2 per day in producing gas, sadly most of which is flash loss. The actual gas has a volume nearly x100 that of the liquid. So the actual gas used is very small compared to the cost of generating that gas. This is a strong argument for NOT using boil off. Of course boil off is very convenient, but a convenience that will cost you £1.4k per annum.
Substrates: £7k per annum
Substrates can be very cheap or very expensive depending on what you are growing. Si substrates are notoriously cheap, and whilst the industry is phasing out 2” lightly doped Si substrates, you can still buy them for around £8 each. 2” GaAs substrates are around £50 each. 2” InP or InAs substrates are decidedly more expensive: £125 each. I will use 2” GaAs from now on by way of example. Handily you can do two things to save some money. Firstly, III-V substrates can be repolished (35reclaim) for around £10 – £20 each depending on the material. My experience with these substrates is that they are equal in quality to “new” epiready ones. Secondly, you can ¼ your substrates to effectively get 4 growths out of a single substrate at the cost of reduced sample area. Unfortunately you cannot do both, i.e. you cannot repolish a quarter. You can however repolish a repolished wafer several times. The choice, in the end, is whether you want to grow on full wafers or not. But bear in mind that a ¼ of a 3” wafer is about the same area as a whole 2” wafer at a fraction of the price. Of course the annual cost depends on how many samples you grow a day. Two per day is typical for a 280 day working year, or £7 per annum assuming you decided to grow on ¼ of 2″ substrates.
Cell material: £2k per annum
Cell material is not actually as expensive as you may think; check out the latest prices SciTech Solutions has to offer. You will want 7N material (that is 99.99999% pure) as standard. Though in many research applications 6N5 (99.99995) is perfectly suitable. The table below lists some experimentally gathered usage versus cost values. All materials are 7N aside from the Al which is 6N5. 7N Al is about x10 the cost.
To help you interpret the table: The far right column (“cost (£)”) is the cost for the amount of material listed in the adjacent “Grams” column. Note: minimum order quantities apply. The “microns” column is an estimate of the number of microns grown with that number of grams. The left-hand columns are calculations based on the values in the right-hand columns. Note that Be is very expensive but also a gram will last 20+ years. Si is cheap, since it is essentially smashed up substrates. As is a rather expensive one of cost for a 2.4 kg charge, but that single charge should last 5 ‑ 15 years depending on individual usage. This means for an initial outlay of £20k you can grow for around 10 years, or £2k per annum.
Crucibles: £3k per annum
The cell crucibles are actually only £600 each from SciTech Solutions. Handily most of them are also reusable. Once they have been soaked in AQUA REGIA for a few days to remove any material, they can be rinsed in DI water, then IPA, blown dry with N2 and baked to 100°C in a little desktop oven. Al and Bi can very easily shatter a crucible so you are better off using a crucible liner and employing “good filling policy” (see Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Crucible Cracking). All in all you may spend up to £3k per annum on crucibles/liners per year, and that is if you are very unfortunate.
Gaskets: £250 per annum
Next we have gaskets and again SciTech Solutions have the lowest prices around. UHV systems use conflat (CF) flanges that comprise hard stainless steel (SS) blades that bite into a soft copper gasket. The gaskets are then effectively consumed once used and would need to be melted down and reforged. A standard system service involves replenishing depleted cells, cleaning/replacing shutter blades, cleaning the manipulator of excess As, and perhaps replacing an ion gauge or TSP filament. Every component requires a replacement gasket and it is very easy to get through a few kgs of copper per annum. This is around £50 of copper. However the actual gaskets cost around £250 per annum. It is good practice to recycle your copper to recuperate costs.
Electricity: £13k per annum
Electricity is something you may or may not have to pay yourself, depending on how your research is funded. The bottom line is someone, somewhere will have to pay. An MBE system typically runs off a 64A, 3 phase AC supply. You can find some more detailed calculations in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: AC power but mostly it runs at about ~50% capacity during operation, at 25% idling over-night, perhaps 70% when baking but never at 100%. Applying some calculation based on general 280 day usage your electric bill for an MBE machine is therefore: £13k per annum. Note the essential parts of the system should be backed up on a suitable uninterruptable power supply and generator team (£10k), this may seem an expensive initial outlay but I can guarantee it will save you a cell per power failure. Which means it will pay for itself after the first power cut and hence significantly reduce your “unexpected maintenance” bill (see below)
General rainy day fund: £10k per annum
Finally you have general maintenance. Sadly UHV metals are rather rare and very hard (which makes them difficult and expensive to machine). The typical metals are stainless steel in grades A2 (304) or A4 (316), molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, some aluminium (as long as it is kept away from anything approaching 660°C!), copper (which is slowly eaten by arsenic), silver and (possibly) gold. There are various parts than can fail. Commonly Ga or In can run into places where they are not wanted and cause short circuits to electrical feedthroughs or high friction to rotary feedthroughs. In addition anything electrical: cells, manipulator, ion gauge, TSP, pumps etc requires annual servicing and minor replacement of parts. It is good to keep around £10k per annum simply for unexpected repairs. Of course the cost of repairs can be reduced if you are confident and able to do it yourself.
The small system I have described here would cost £50k per annum in run costs for 2 samples a day or £90 per sample (however this obviously does not include salaries). Of course if you grow 4 samples a day, your run cost goes up to £60k per annum, but your sample cost drops to £54 per sample. This probably represents the lowest annual run cost for a productive MBE system. Remember that in order to reduce your run costs you will need to buy more infrastructure during the initial outlay. It is always beneficial to do so, since the outlay is typically recuperated within 1 – 2 years.